Qualifizierung von Daten der Bodenschätzung als Grundlage für großmaßstäbige Bodenfunktionsbewertungen

Gerd Schmidt
Michael Steininger
Markus Möller
Duration: 2008-2008

The concrete implementation of soil protection measures in accordance with the Federal Soil Protection Act requires an assessment of soil potentials and the identification of potential soil hazards in order to estimate the fulfilment of soil functions. An essential assessment basis for this are large-scale soil maps (scale ? 1:10,000), from which input parameters for soil evaluation models can be derived. The available pedological data bases (soil map 1:50,000, soil profile database) form a valuable basis for the overview scale. For specific, large-scale tasks, however, soil maps at a scale of ? 1:10,000 scale are not available. In this respect, there is a deficit with regard to the large-scale and site-specific designation of soil units (soil types, soil communities) for agriculturally used areas. For these, the documents of the soil estimation (descriptions of burial pits, maps of the soil estimation 1:10,000) form one of the most important data bases due to their high spatial resolution. Soil estimation was mainly carried out in the 1930s. Since then, processes of soil erosion (erosion, accumulation) as well as anthropogenic influences have led to substrate shifts with changes in the soil profile structure up to the present. Studies by the Central German Institute for Applied Site Science and Soil Protection for selected areas of the black earth region in Saxony-Anhalt have shown that 30 to 50 % of the burial hole descriptions of the soil estimation no longer accurately reflect the present soil conditions. Thus, a qualification of the soil estimation data on the basis of field surveys as well as the adjustment of the boundaries of the soil estimation maps to natural structures taking into account erosion processes is imperative. To this end, a methodology is to be developed in the project and applied using selected study areas as examples. While substrate displacements and the associated deficits of the soil estimation maps are, among other things, a consequence of water erosion processes and thus occur predominantly in the parts of Saxony-Anhalt with greater relief, wind erosion represents a greater problem from the point of view of soil protection in the northern parts of Saxony-Anhalt. In order to be able to develop an adequate procedure for qualifying the soil estimation documents here as well, it is first necessary to create an appropriate database. Especially for the estimation of the protective function of wind obstacles, there are still deficits in this respect (height, blowability). Against this background, the second objective of the project is the development and application of a methodology for the dimensioning of wind obstacles.